What is advanced photography?

What is advanced photography?

Advanced photography delves into advanced technical aspects of photography like camera setting and lens techniques. With advanced photography, you generally get to learn about advanced composition, visual language and lighting.

For learning advanced photography, you first need to know what are the things that you need to keep in mind while taking a photo. They are:

  • Emotion – Your photograph should be able to evoke a response from people whether cute or beautiful only then can it be qualified as good photography.
  • Light – For good photography you need good lighting. Out of the various types of lights, soft, hard, Rembrandt, you have to decide which one you. want.Study good photography, painting, watch how movies are lit to invoke emotion, and hang out with photographers to learn about good lighting. Wait for the right light during landscape photography.
  • Composition – Arrangement of subjects within a photo is known as composition. In a good composition, a person’s eye travels throughout the photo.
  • Creativity – Originality and creativity always stands out in any photo.
  • Timing – The peak of action or human emotion or waiting for clouds to move into position can become the crucial point in your photograph.
  • Context – What is fundamental in storytelling is showing the subject in relation to other subjects or the environment as it gives the viewer more to connect to than just a straight portrait.
  • Layers – Layering means different things to different people. It broadly means give the viewer more elements to ponder about.

For a good photo, you need three things

  1. Forming a Vision
  2. Execute your vision
  3. Choose a subject suited to the vision
  4. Find the right audience

Light and directionality :

The directionality of light factors in defining the quality of shadows, the contrast, textures, and three-dimensionality of a scene. It also defines the mood and emotion that the photograph conveys. Unidirectional light qualities serve the purpose in landscape photography.

Unidirectional and non-unidirectional lighting can capture the prevailing cloud cover and potentially be a powerful factor in modifying the quality of light. Clouds serve two purposes in landscape photography. They can represent a strong compositional element in the scene. Another purpose served by the lights are as effective substrates in changing the quality of shadows, contrast, textures, and depth of the scene.

Visualization

“Visualization is a conscious process of projecting the final photographic image in the mind before taking the first steps in actually photographing the subject”, said Ansel Adams.

True Focal length

Focal has nothing to do with the camera or the type of sensor it uses, it is an optical attribute of a lens. The true focal length of a lens is what the manufacturer prints on the lens. The Nikon 50mm f/1.4G lens has a true focal length of 50mm, irrespective of camera.

Field of view

Field of view is what your lens together with the camera sees and captures from left to right, to top to bottom. When shooting with a DSLR camera, the field of view is typically what you see inside the viewfinder. Some DSLR cameras have less than 100% viewfinder coverage. This means that what you see inside the viewfinder is less in size than what the final image will is. When shooting with the Nikon D90 DSLR that has 96% viewfinder coverage, what you are seeing inside the viewfinder is going to be around 4% less than what the camera captures. The actual field of view is what the camera captures, not necessarily what you see inside the viewfinder.

Main difference between the angle of view and field of view, is that angle of view is an attribute of the lens. Field of view is the result of both the lens and the camera. Angle of view of 84° for the 24mm f/1.4G is for a full-frame camera. If mounted on a camera with a cropped/APS-C sensor, the field of view that is what you see through the camera gets narrower to 61°.

If you wish to study in-depth about the Equivalent focal length and the crop factor, I suggest you read this article:
https://photographylife.com/equivalent-focal-length-and-field-of-view
To study aspects like lens calibration, read articles
like:https://photographylife.com/how-to-calibrate-lenses

Vignette

Vignetting, also known as “light fall-off”is a process of darkening of image corners when compared to the center.

There are 4 types of vignetting:

Optical vignetting

It naturally occurs in all lenses and depending on the optical design and construction of the lens, it can be strong on some lenses, while being barely noticeable for others.

Pixel Vignetting

Vignetting is applicable to image sensors and as digital sensors are flat, their pixels are all built the same way and face the same direction. Pixels that receive light rays head on at 90 degrees are in the centre of the sensor. Pixels in the corner receive them at a slight angle. Sensors in the corners receive slightly less light compared to the center and this causes pixel vignetting.

Mechanical / Accessory Vignetting

Manufacturers often design lenses with some slack to allow mounting of various accessories such as filters and lens hoods,

If you pay close attention to your lenses, their lens hoods are always much larger than the front element of the lens. That’s because the idea is to block bright sources of light such as sunlight from entering the lens at extreme angles to prevent flares, ghosting and reduced contrast due to internal reflections, without blocking the needed light, which would obviously result in vignetting.

Therefore, manufacturers pay very close attention to the size of lens hoods and make sure that they are large enough to pass light without adding vignetting. This is the reason why lens hoods come in so many different sizes and shapes and it is also the reason why one should always use manufacturer-supplied lens hoods, rather than generic third party versions.

Since lens hoods are carefully crafted for each lens, they are typically not the source of vignetting. Most of the time, mechanical / accessory vignetting is caused by filters, filter holders and other third-party tools.

Artificial vignetting

Some photographers leave optical vignetting in images without correcting it. Others specifically add vignetting or increase its effect during post-processing so as to bring out the desired effect.

Correcting Vignette in photoshop or lightroom Lightroom and Photoshop can correct vignetting by using the Lens Corrections module of Lightroom or Camera RAW.

Spherical Aberration

An optical problem occuring when all incoming light rays focus at different points after passing through a spherical surface. The rays of light that pass through a lens near its horizontal axis are refracted less than rays closer to the edge or “periphery” of the lens and as a result, end up in different spots across the optical axis. The parallel light rays of incoming light do not converge at the same point after passing through the lens as a result spherical aberration can affect resolution and clarity, so it is hard to obtain sharp images.

Way to reduce spherical aberration

It can be reduced by using a specialized non-spherical lens surface, which is curved outwards on one side for the sole purpose of converging light rays into a single focal point.

Aberration is most pronounced when the diaphragm of the lens is wide open, that is, there is maximum aperture. If you stop down the lens even by a single stop it dramatically reduces spherical aberration, because aperture blades block the outer edges of spherical lenses.

Focus shift

An optical problem that occurs due to Spherical Aberration when an object is brought into focus at maximum aperture and also captured with the lens stopped down is known as focus shift. It leads to blurry images and focus errors if you are working with subjects at close distances and using fast aperture lenses.

Reducing focus shift
This is a difficult problem to deal with if manufacturers don’t provide the ability to fine tune autofocus on each aperture. Here are some tricks that might work.

  • Use maximum aperture to take pictures so as to not worry about focus shift. But, it may not be practical for most lenses, as they are soft wide open.
  • AF Fine Tune optimal aperture – If the camera has the ability to fine tune autofocus, then set the lens to its optimal aperture that you will be primarily using, then fine tune autofocus. Then you will have to shoot at this optimized aperture all the time and stop down when needed. If you are using larger apertures, then it can result in focus errors after this type of calibration.
  • A slower lens

To avoid focus shift problems, use slower f/1.8-f/2.8 lenses that have less issues with focus shift.

Lens Diffraction

A photograph grows progressively less sharp at small aperture values – f/16, f/22, so if you stop down your lens to such small apertures, the finest detail in your photographs begin to blur. This effect can worry beginning photographers.

How to reduce lens Diffraction

You cannot avoid diffraction as it is a result of physics. How good your lens is doesn’t matter here, diffraction will reduce sharpness at smaller apertures no matter what.

To avoid diffraction in your photographs you can use a larger aperture. Theoretically, it is possible to correct for diffraction through a sharpening process. It is known as deconvolution sharpening. It is most effective when one has a perfect model of the lens in question. It includes its exact optical characteristics because of this generic deconvolution sharpening does not reduce the effects of diffraction to a great degree.

References:

https://photographylife.com/a-study-in-light-directionality-and-mood

https://photographylife.com/construction-of-a-photograph-the-process-of-visualization

https://photographylife.com/what-is-focus-shift

https://photographylife.com/what-is-diffraction-in-photography

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